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    • Hydropower

      This IRENA/IEA-ETSAP technology brief provides technical background, analyses the potential and the barriers for market growth, and offers insights for policy makers on the hydropower technology.

      Publications Reports Hydropower Technology
    • Renewable Energy Cost Analysis - Concentrating Solar Power

      This working paper is part of a set of five reports on hydropower, wind, biomass, concentrating solar power and solar pholtovoltaics that address the current costs of these key renewable power technology options. 

      Publications Reports Power Generation Costs Costs Solar energy Technology
    • Ocean Energy: Technologies, Patents, Deployment Status and Outlook

      The potential of oceans as an energy source is staggering – more than sufficient to meet global electricity demand well into the future. Ocean resources vary from tidal currents and waves, to temperature and salinity gradients.

      Publications Reports Ocean Technology
    • Community Energy Toolkit: Best practices for broadening the ownership of renewables

      This white paper, developed by the IRENA Coalition for Action, analyses 11 renewable energy initiatives from across the world, showcasing ways in which communities actively participate in energy decision making bringing socio-economic impacts to societies.

      Publications Reports CF Just & Inclusive Energy Transition Macro-economic benefits Socio-economic impact Energy & jobs Socio-economic impact Coalition for Action
    • Sustainable Rural Bioenergy Solutions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A collection of good practices

      This collection aims to provide a reference for policy makers and practitioners working to scale up bioenergy in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Energy, agriculture, forestry, environment, finance and business experts all seek for solutions to provide energy and also enhance food security, social welfare and environmental sustainability.

      Publications Reports Bioenergy & biofuels Technology Bioenergy Policy
    • Biofuel potential in Southeast Asia: Raising food yields, reducing food waste and utilising residues

      Southeast Asia has considerable resources to produce liquid biofuels sustainably, using biomass feedstocks that would not cause carbon-dioxide emissions or interfere with food supply. This report offers detailed estimates of biomass resource potential for Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. According to an IRENA assessment, advanced biofuels could provide as much as 7.3 exajoules of primary energy per annum in Southeast Asia by 2050, or half of the region’s total primary bioenergy potential.

      Publications Reports Climate Action Bioenergy & biofuels Technology Energy transition
    • Quality Infrastructure for Renewable Energy Technologies: Solar Water Heaters

      This guide is part of a series prepared by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the field of quality infrastructure (QI) for small-scale renew¬able energy technologies. Quality Infrastructure for Renewable Energy Technologies: Solar Water Heaters analyses the challenges and offers recommendations for developing QI for solar water heaters (SWHs), as well as highlighting the experiences of several countries in developing and implementing QI for SWHs. The SWH guide concludes by applying guidelines for incrementally developing QI to the particular case of SWH markets.

      Publications Reports Quality & Standards Innovation Solar energy Technology
    • Renewable Energy Options for Shipping

      The shipping industry plays a critical role in the global economy, carrying approximately 90% of the total tonnage of world’s traded goods. Shipping propulsion has changed radically since the mid-19th century, from the renewable energy of sail power, to the coal power of steamships, to the predominance of heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. But renewable energy technologies could transform the global shipping fleet again, at all levels and scales.

      Publications Reports Transport Technology Energy efficiency Technology
    • Renewable energy finance: Green bonds

      Renewables have emerged as a major recipient of green bond proceeds. This brief highlights the need for more green bonds to drive sustainable, climate safe, energy finance.

      Publications Reports Energy transition in end uses Policy Finance & investment
    • Renewable energy finance: Institutional capital

      Transforming the global energy system calls for massive mobilisation of capital. This brief provides recommendations to harness institutional investment for renewable energy projects.

      Publications Reports Finance & investment
    • Sugarcane bioenergy in Southern Africa: Economic potential for sustainable scale-up

      This study reviews the bioenergy potential from sugarcane and associated development costs in seven sugar-producing countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), aiming to provide a foundation for more detailed country-level studies exploring practical potential.

      Publications Reports Bioenergy & biofuels Technology
    • International Off-grid Renewable Energy Conference 2012: Key Findings and Recommendations

      IRENA co-organised the International Off-grid Renewable Energy Conference (IOREC) along with the ECOWAS Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) and the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), in Accra, Ghana, on 1-2 November 2012. This report presents the key findings and recommendations that emerged from the roundtable discussions during IOREC.

      Publications Reports Off-grid for energy access
    • End-of-life management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels

      This report is the first-ever projection of PV panel waste volumes to 2050. It highlights that recycling or repurposing solar PV panels at the end of their roughly 30-year lifetime can unlock an estimated stock of 78 million tonnes of raw materials and other valuable components globally by 2050.

      Publications Reports Solar energy Technology
    • Demand-side flexibility for power sector transformation

      Power systems need to be increasingly flexible to accommodate rising solar and wind shares. This brief examines the uses of demand-side flexibility, outlines solutions to achieve these, and highlights examples in actual power systems.

      Publications Reports Power system flexibility Planning Solar energy Technology Wind energy Technology Energy transition in end uses Policy
    • Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2021

      IRENA's latest global cost study shows how the competitiveness of renewables continued amid the fossil fuel crisis and highlights cost trends for major renewable electricity sources.

      Reports Publications Costs Energy transition Power Generation Costs
    • Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power: A Guide for Decision Makers

      A practical guide for decision-makers and project developers on the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is developed as part of the IRENA Renewables in Islands Initiative (IRII).

      Publications Reports Electricity Storage Costs Costs Energy storage Technology
    • Africa 2030: Roadmap for a Renewable Energy Future

      African countries need to meet fast-growing energy demand and extend modern energy services to more communities while also improving people’s health and ensuring long-term sustainability. The continent could meet nearly a quarter of its energy needs through the use of indigenous, clean, renewable energy by 2030, according to this report by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).

      Publications Reports Renewable Energy Roadmap (ReMap) Regional Energy transition
    • Boosting solar PV markets: The role of quality infrastructure

      This handbook outlines the best practices to develop and implement Quality Infrastructure for solar PV and, based on case studies, offers quantified cost-benefit analysis for QI implementation at different stages of PV plant development. The data and analysis provides guidance for establishing proper QI mechanisms, showcased through successful experiences with utility-scale, distributed-generation and off-grid PV development in 11 countries. 

      Publications Reports Quality & Standards Innovation INSPIRE
    • Smart Grids and Renewables: A cost-benefit analysis guide for developing countries

      Smart grid technologies support the creation of an increasingly flexible electricity grid, enabling the integration of variable renewable energy. They work by incorporating information and communications technology at all stages of power generation, delivery and consumption, improving reliability and service to end-users.

      Publications Reports Stationary Applications Costs Costs
    • Post-COVID recovery: An agenda for resilience, development and equality

      Energy transition investments in the wake of COVID-19 can pave the way for equitable, inclusive and resilient economies.

      Publications Reports Renewable Energy Roadmap (ReMap) Global Collaborative Frameworks CF Just & Inclusive Energy Transition Finance & investment Energy transition in end uses Policy Macro-economic benefits Socio-economic impact
    • 30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Wind Energy Markets

      Wind energy has emerged in recent years as a prominent power source in some of the world’s leading markets. Successful wind development hinges on a range of policy and regulatory decisions. A joint report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) provides insights into the policy design decisions taken in important existing markets over the last three decades.

      Publications Reports Wind energy Technology Power system structures & markets Policy
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